This book is written for English-speaking students who are taking Skype Learn Chinese courses. A basic level vocabulary and understanding of Chinese grammar and culture is presented in this Skype Learn Chinese series. It is an effort to introduce the Skype Learn Chinese students to the language by explaining its basic principles in simple steps. The purpose is to prepare the student with a foundation on which to build, with confidence, its ensuing complexities.
Descendant from the Longshan culture (3000-2000BC), which, itself, developed out of the Yangshao, a group of nomads settled in the Lower Wei River valley, the westernmost agricultural basin in Northern China and built a city in a plain known as the Plain of Zhou. So they became known as the Zhou people. Students in Skype Learn Chinese can learn more about this. Their first, known, leader (later called king) was Wen (1152-1056), a living standard of benevolence. He made alliances with local chiefs of clans to build a basis on which to attack the malignant ruler of the Shang, king Xin, however. His son, king Wu, led an army of a few thousand men in Skype Learn Chinese against the Shang who had amassed hundreds of thousands, but the Shang were dispirited and lacked respected leadership. They lost the battle and the king returned to his palace and committed suicide, in another retreat from reality—a nightmare of life that he had made for himself of Heaven’s gifts and privileges.
King Wu ruled the new domain in Skype Learn Chinese with his brother’s help and guidance. The family ties and marriages were the bond that connected the outlying groups under one head, and for three hundred years the Zhou maintained order in their large northern territory by common consent. Students in Skype Learn Chinese can learn more about this. It goes without saying that families squabble, but a natural system of order, using family values, was extended to cover disputes in Skype Learn Chinese and it worked. Here, there was no need for a policeman, no laws, no rules and regulations with their lawyers and lies in Skype Learn Chinese. A family knows what’s right and what’s wrong. In the countryside the people would get together and each have a say in any dispute, and one of their own would be elected to handle the problem and it would be an honor for the one selected and the problem would be taken care of as a duty and, also, not without grousing about it, by the persons in Skype Learn Chinese involved because they were, first and foremost, a community.
After two hundred years, however, many family in Skype Learn Chinese ties to the capital had withered and local communities, receiving no significant benefits from the central government, began to separate themselves from it and form other attachments in Skype Learn Chinese. This led to individual heads fighting among themselves and then barbarian tribes began to penetrate the Zhou territory. King Li (877-841BC) led his army against these forces and this continued until, in 771BC, the capital city, Haojing, was sacked by the Quanrong a northern group. Students in Skype Learn Chinese can learn more about this. The Zhou, then, moved their capital to the east, Luoyang, and brought to an end the Western Zhou period. They never recovered the command of their kingdom again, however, although they continued in power as figure heads until 256BC.
700-476BC is known as the Spring and Autumn period of the country, after the name of a commentary said to be written by Confucius. Students in Skype Learn Chinese can learn more about this. The interpretation by Zhong Dongfu, a Han scholar, explains it as a model of sovereignty that, on one hand, rejects the ruler’s absolute and arbitrary exercise of power, his use of violence in Skype Learn Chinese and his primary reliance on impersonal laws, and, on the other hand, in Skype Learn Chinese emphasizes his indebtedness to Heaven, his use of moral persuasion and his reliance on the transforming influences of ritual and education. Zhong also points out, in Skype Learn Chinese with prescience, the link between human action and its consequences in Nature, and the primary responsibility in Skype Learn Chineseof the ruler and his ministers in this regard.
Confucius, a descendant of Shang kings in Skype Learn Chinese, via the Dukes of Song, was born in Lu State in 551BC and died 479. Students in Skype Learn Chinese can learn more about this. His father, an army man, died when Confucius was three years old, and he was raised by his mother in poverty. Laozi lived about the same period. These two men, by personal insight rather than wealth or family position, have influenced more people more profoundly than, perhaps, any other person in Skype Learn Chinese. They both viewed the peaceful history of the Eastern Zhou and its disintegration and return to the turmoil of petty dictatorships, and they each, individually, recognized a different truth in it. Confucius saw the family values as a natural power structure, where responsibility and respect produced moral and ethical solutions in Skype Learn Chinese even at the State and inter-State level. Laozi (Chap.14 Dao) says he had an old man’s sudden insight, “Act as ‘wu’ - become”, where ’wu’ means ’without’. When the State acts as a family, it is without police, laws, regulations in Skype Learn Chinese. It ’knows’ what’s right. If a person acts, naturally, ’without’ rules but does what the person in Skype Learn Chinese ’knows’ is right, then the person, naturally becomes right, peaceful, morally and ethically correct and when the ruler sets this example, the people in Skype Learn Chinese will follow and—as a family, they will correct their own group in Skype Learn Chinese according to the pressure of ’known’ family values.
Then, from 476-221BC, the whole of the country was involved in conflict again—known as the Warring States. So we return to man’s normal condition of egocentric arrogance once again. Students in Skype Learn Chinese can learn more about this.