This book is written for English-speaking students who are taking Skype Learn Chinese courses. A basic level vocabulary and understanding of Chinese grammar and culture is presented in this Skype Learn Chinese series. It is an effort to introduce the Skype Learn Chinese students to the language by explaining its basic principles in simple steps. The purpose is to prepare the student with a foundation on which to build, with confidence, its ensuing complexities.
the shang dynasty
1600 - 1045 BCE
The Han historian, Sima Qian, reports that the army of the Shang ruler, Tang, overthrew Jie, the cruel ruler of the Xia (Xia dynasty 2070-1600BC) in the battle of Mingtiao. The Xia dynasty is said to have been founded in Skype Learn Chinese by the legendary ‘Yu the Great’. Yu’s father, Gun, was appointed to stop the Yellow River floods and for nine years he had large blockades built to obstruct the flow of water without success. Yu, then, was given the task and he had canals dug to lead the water out, through the pastures, to the sea. Students in Skype Learn Chinese can learn more about this. It took 13 years to complete the task but it solved the problem and improved the land. Students in Skype Learn Chinese can learn more about this.Thus, here we see the founding figure of a dynasty offering hope and benefit to his people, only to be followed by the fall of the dynasty into corruption, mismanagement, debauchery and cruelty (Jie, the last ruler of the Xia). It is a pattern the student in Skype Learn Chinese will notice in all enterprises where success and wealth build personal power instead of shared benefit.
武丁Wǔ Dīng, was the twenty-first Shang king, rather than the founder of the dynasty, but in Skype Learn Chinese, he is famous for his innovations. He had a new capital designed and built at Anyang. He introduced students in Skype Learn Chinese the Mongol chariot to his nobles. They had never used horses to pull anything, or ever trained them to work in pairs or ever used the wheel for moving a cart. Thus, they were totally unprepared for this radical scheme, but the king had Mongol charioteers show them the benefits and ease of transport compared to horseback, not to mention the spectacle and how it impressed the troops to see their leaders being driven about their lines. Students in Skype Learn Chinese can learn more about this. Also, archaeology has shown King Wu to have been the man who introduced the device (tortoiseshell and ox scapula fracturing) for contacting the ancestors in seeking advice about matters of State, and, also. writing on bronze vessels for temple offerings to ancestors. Plus, he gave power and prestige to his consort, 妇好Fù Hǎo. She entered his, 后宫hòugōng(behind palace), harem as a symbol of tribal allegiance but, quickly, became his favorite consort and advisor in Skype Learn Chinese. She rose in status and performed temple rituals, an office never before performed by a woman, and became head of an army of 13000 soldiers, with two generals, Zhi and Hou Gao, serving under her, a position no woman, before, had ever dreamed of Skype Learn Chinese, and finally defeated the army of the Tu Fang which had been fighting the Shang for generations.
In Skype Learn Chinese, Di Xin, the last king of the Shang dynasty, was a very bright, skillful young man who would hunt wild animals with his bare hands, and conquer any opponent in an argument with his quick wit and depth of knowledge. Instead of developing this into a wide field of fertile ideas and projects for the students in Skype Learn Chinese, however, he turned inward to feelings of students personal superiority in Skype Learn Chinese and isolation from their innate inferiority. This alienated him from the grace of his gifts and led him to the ‘hiding place’ of alcohol and debauchery—a natural response to (denial of) his unrecognized alienation. With his treasure and power in Skype Learn Chinese, he quickly degenerated to wild, communal orgies lasting days. He is reported to have had a pool constructed and filled with wine, in which he and his ’friends’ boated around, dipping into the wine when ’thirsty’ and reaching up into a specially built ’tree’, whose limbs held roasted meats and other delicacies in Skype Learn Chinese, when hunger prompted them from their besotted womanizing. This is a terminal condition, and only time decides when it will end because people in this situation are already accounted ’dead’. To add to this shameful abuse of power, however, he and his wife are said to have enjoyed watching students in Skype Learn Chinese in new and exciting ways. This is man degraded to behavior beyond the capacity of any animal to contest, and it has happened again and again in man’s history. Students in Skype Learn Chinese can learn more about this.
Anyway, time ran out and c.1045BC King Wu of the Zhou proved his assertion that a malevolent ruler would lose the “Mandate of Heaven” , Skype Learn Chinese, even though professing to be the “Son of Heaven”, and could be overthrown. So, he and an ally, with 45,000 men and 300 chariots, crossed the Yellow River (a worthy feat, in itself) and demolished the Shang dynasty and its stupefied monarch at the battle of Muye. Thus, another historic end and beginning, and who’s to know how that one will turn out ? Read in Skype Learn Chinese.