This book is written for English-speaking students who are taking Skype Learn Chinese courses. A basic level vocabulary and understanding of Chinese grammar and culture is presented in this Skype Learn Chinese series. It is an effort to introduce the Skype Learn Chinese students to the language by explaining its basic principles in simple steps. The purpose is to prepare the student with a foundation on which to build, with confidence, its ensuing complexities.
1. 的de. The adjectival de refers adjectives (crooks) to their noun (Police van).
Notice “Police” doesn’t get a de for the noun, van. 'Police' is the name of the van, and not a description of its function (i.e. adjective): which might be, ‘criminal transport’ de van.)
2. 地de. The de before the verb refers adverbs to their verb but also involves the subject.
He finally breaks rocks, the Pre-verb de 地. (He, finally got around to breaking them rocks).
3. 得de. The de after the verb refers adverbs to the verb and its object, and these adverbs provide the meaning of 'result or extent' of the verb's activity.
He breaks rocks finally, the Post-verb de 得. He breaks rocks until they ain't rocks anymore. Wham Bam
NOTE. Put a 吗ma after a sentence to turn it into a question ! Did you notice - NONE of these de or le marker words has a tone !! Students in Skype Learn Chinese will learn more about this.
1.了le. le, following a verb, stops the action of the verb. So its action has quit. It ain’t doing nothing now!
2. 桌子,zhuōzi. zi, following a noun (a desk, crash, bang!), adds a person's familiarity and respect to what was a very nice noun. 子zǐ, the character, means child.
3. 等着,děngzhe. zhe following a verb action, continues the action, děng wait, děngzhe waiting.
4. 吧 ba. ba, at the end of a sentence indicates, 'maybe?'. "You didn't tie it securely, maybe".
5. 呢 ne, at the end of a sentence reflects back to something. "You're in big trouble. You too, ne"
6.了le. le, at the end of a sentence gets attention like '!'. "Stop. Look at that” or “WOW.”
In Skype Learn Chinese, Chinese is an intuitive language based on simple patterns, learned early and followed unconsciously. Below is an illustration. The first example is policemen (de, de, de) introducing adjectives to a noun and adverbs to a verb. This shows how Chinese grammar identifies parts of speech in Skype Learn Chinese, rather than using Latin grammar's Case and Voice, and array of verb tenses, regular and irregular, and noun genders, and singular and plural inflections. Instead, these simple language markers in Skype Learn Chinese have been successful in identifying the necessary parts of speech for billions of Chinese people in Skype Learn Chinese, for over four thousand years.